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Stream: Medicine     
Duration: 3 Years

Course: Pathology

Course Type: Post Graduation

Doctorate of Medicine (abbreviated as M.D.) in Pathology is a postgraduate degree in the of medicine and diagnostics/ the study of a disease. This specialty addresses the main 3 components of disease – cause, mechanism of development or origin, consequences of changes.

The branch deals with diagnostic, testing and treatment methods using genetic technologies, thus underpinning the concept of patient care and prevention of diseases. Physicians practicing pathology are called pathologists. They generally work with other doctors, scientists, and health professionals in hospitals and clinics to diagnose, treat and prevent diseases.

The process of pathology is quite simple, mapping the overall response of the body to any foreign influence, i.e. antigen or disease. Subsequently, this knowledge is used to diagnose and treat illnesses. Pathologists compare the normal structure and function (cell count, blood) of a human body to the abnormal structure and function observed when a person is not well.
Pathology consists of 4 main specialties:

  • Hematology – the study of disorders of the blood
  • Histopathology – the study of disease in human tissue
  • Medical Microbiology – the study of infection
  • Chemical Pathology – the study of the biochemical basis of diseases

Pathology is the division of medical science, which focuses on effects, development, processes and causes of diseases. Subjects studied under this degree are Pathology, Microbiology, Immunology, Medical Genetics and Neuroscience.

MD in Pathology: Course Objectives

  • To train students for performing high-quality diagnoses in any specified clinical situation using appropriate and relevant samples of tissue, blood, body fluid, etc., and suggest treatment options based on the diagnosis.
  • To enable students to pursue clinical and laboratory- based research, thereby proving helpful in research based studies on cancer or other terminal diseases.
  • To develop in students the competence to diagnose important pathological conditions in various fields such as histopathology, cytopathology, hematology, and immunopathology.

Top Colleges for Doctorate of Medicine [MD] (Pathology)

  • Doctorate of Medicine [MD] (Pathology) in Karnataka
  • Doctorate of Medicine [MD] (Pathology) in Tamil Nadu
  • Doctorate of Medicine [MD] (Pathology) in Maharashtra
  • Doctorate of Medicine [MD] (Pathology) in Gujarat
  • Doctorate of Medicine [MD] (Pathology) in Uttar Pradesh

MD Pathology: Course Highlights

Tabulated below are some of the major highlights of the course.

Name of the courseM.D. in Pathology
Course LevelPost Graduate
Duration3 years, full time
Examination TypeSemester System
EligibilityMBBS degree recognized by the Medical Council of India
Admission ProcessBased on performance in the relevant entrance examination (NEET) or personal interview in some cases
Average Course FeeINR 5K to 25 Lacs
Average Starting SalaryINR 1 Lakh to 12 Lacs
Top Recruiting CompaniesApollo Hospitals, National Institute of Health, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Food and Drug Administration, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Dr. Lal Path Labs, Intelligence Bureau, Central Bureau of Investigation, Asian Institute of Medical Sciences

Top Institutes Offering MD in Pathology

The average tuition fee charged in India for MD Pathology ranges around INR0 25 lacs for private institutes, but is as low as INR 5,000 for AIIMS.

Listed below are some of the best institutes in India that offer MD in Pathology:

 1All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS)New Delhi5,011Candidate must have obtained a minimum of 55% marks in aggregate in any of the MBBS/ BDS professional examinations recognized by the Medical Council of India.Eligible candidates are called for an entrance test organized by AIIMS. The selection is made entirely on the basis of merit obtained in the entrance test and the choice of discipline allocated on the basis of personal counseling. 
 2Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER)Chandigarh10,000An MBBS degree as certified by the Medical council of India.Admission is based on rank secured in NEET. Candidates are also selected on the basis of merit, as determined in a test conducted by the West Bengal University of Health Sciences (WBUHS).
 2Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER)Puducherry8,205An MBBS degree recognized by the Medical Council of India.Admission is based on rank secured in NEET.
 3Kasturba Medical CollegeManipal, Udupi, Karnataka16,33,334An MBBS degree recognized by the Medical Council of India.Admission is based on the rank obtained in the National Eligibility Entrance Test (NEET).
 4St. John’s Medical CollegeBengaluru, Karnataka151,503An MBBS degree recognized by the Medical Council of India.Selection is based on performance in NEET.
 5Stanley Medical College (SMC)Chennai, Tamil Nadu20,000An MBBS from any of the universities incorporated in an act of the central or State legislature of India.Admission is based on the rank obtained in NEET.
 6Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham (Amrita University)Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu25,00,000An MBBS degree from a recognized institute, registered with the Medical Council of India or any other State Medical Council.Admission is based on the rank obtained in NEET.
 7Aligarh Muslim UniversityAligarh, Uttar Pradesh32,265An MBBS degree certified by the Medical Council of India.Admissions to MD/ MS/ PG Diploma courses under 50% State quota are made through NEET. AMU does not conduct any separate test for admission to the MD course.
 8Assam Medical CollegeDibrugarh, Assam25,000An MBBS from any of the universities approved by the Medical Council of India. A relaxation of 5% in aggregate for SC/ ST candidates.Selection is based on the rank obtained in NEET PG.
 9Jagadguru Jayadeva Murugarajendra Medical College (JJM Medical College)Davangere, Karnataka5,01,600An MBBS Degree from an MCI- recognized institution.Admission is based on marks obtained in NEET.
 10Armed Forces Medical CollegePune, Maharashtra64,400An MBBS from an MCI- recognized institution.Selection is based on the rank obtained in NEET PG.
 11Maharishi Markandeshwar UniversityAmbala, Haryana1,759,817An MBBS from an MCI- recognized institution. 1- year compulsory rotatory internship is an essential pre-qualification for acquiring eligibility for admission to the MD course.Admission is based on the relative merit in the NEET PG and NEET MDS.
 12Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Medical College Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh71,450An MBBS degree recognized by the MCI.Admission is based either on performance in NEET or MP-PMT (Madhya Pradesh Pre- Medical Test)
 13Andhra Medical CollegeVisakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh12,00,000An MBBS degree issued by an institution approved by the Medical Council of India and a compulsory internship before the specified date.Admission is based on performance in the entrance exam conducted by NTR University of Health Sciences or in NEET.
 14Indira Gandhi Medical CollegeShimla, Himachal Pradesh39,000An MBBS degree or its equivalent qualification recognized by the Medical Council of India.Admissions to MD courses are made as recognized/ permitted by the Medical Council of India/ Himachal Pradesh University, in accordance with the conditions laid down by the MCI and the State Government.
 15Bangalore Medical College and Research InstituteBengaluru, Karnataka59,070An MBBS degree from any institute recognized by the MCI.Admissions for up to 50 % seats is made through a State Entrance Examination which conducted by the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences and the rest 50% of seats are filled up through the All India Entrance Examination conducted by the Director General of Health Services, (Medical Examination Cell) New Delhi, on merit basis.
 16Bharati Vidyapeeth UniversityPune, Maharashtra1,590,000An MBBS from a medical college recognized by the Medical Council of India and a compulsory 1- year rotating internship on or before 30th April of the admission year.Selection is based on performance in NEET PG.
 17Christian Medical College (CMC)Vellore, Tamil Nadu116,950An MBBS from a medical college recognized by the Medical Council of India and a compulsory 1- year rotating internship on or before 30th April of the admission yearSelection to Christian Medical College, Vellore, is based on performance in an entrance examination, clinical test and interview. The examination consists of a variety of multiple- choice questions, distributed across all disciplines of medicine.
 18Santosh UniversityGhaziabad, Uttar Pradesh466,666An MBBS degree recognized by the MCI.Admission is based on performance in NEET entrance examination.
 19Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary UniversityGurugram, Haryana20,00,000An MBBS or equivalent qualification recognized by the Medical Council of India.Based on performance in NEET.
 20Krishna Institute of Medical SciencesKarad, Maharashtra800,000An MBBS with 50% marks in aggregate from a medical college recognized by the MCI.Selection is based on performance in the All India Entrance Test, Post-Graduate Medical, Dental course – PGM AIET.
 21Madras Medical CollegeChennai, Tamil Nadu23,450An MBBS degree from a university recognized by the Medical Council of India or by any of the State Medical Councils.Selection is based on:
  1. the rank obtained in the Tamil Nadu Post Graduate Entrance Examination for 50% of seats for students who have completed their M.B.B.S from Tamil Nadu and
  2. for the remaining 50 % of seats, based on rank obtained in the All India Post Graduate Entrance Examination conducted by DGHS, New Delhi

MD in Pathology: Course Duration

The course lasts for 3 years, spread over 6 academic terms, including theoretical sessions and laboratory visits.

The duration of MD in Pathology is 2 years for those who have completed a recognized Postgraduate Diploma in the same specialty.

Eligibility for MD in Pathology

Typically, to pursue an MD degree, candidates need to satisfy the eligibility criteria mentioned below:

  • Candidates should have obtained an MBBS Degree from an institution recognized by the Medical Council of India (MCI).
  • Candidate should have completed a 1- year compulsory rotating internship after passing the final professional examination which is MBBS before 30th April of the academic year.

Candidates in possession of an MBBS degree or Provisional MBBS Pass Certificate recognized by the Indian Medical Council Act 1956, besides a permanent or provisional registration certificate of MBBS qualification issued by the Medical Council of India or State Medical Council and having completed 1 year of internship or/ are likely to complete the internship on or before 31st March or 31st April of the relevant year, may apply for NEET-PG through the online application system.

Admission Process for MD Pathology

Admission to MD in Pathology is based on a national level entrance examination-  National Eligibility Cum Entrance Test (NEET) PG-  which is a single window entrance examination to MD/MS/PG diploma courses in medicine in India. Candidates who have secured the qualifying percentile for the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) are eligible.

NATIONAL ELIGIBILITY CUM ENTRANCE TEST (NEET) PG – NEET PG is an eligibility-cum-ranking examination, conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), for admission to MS/MD and PG Diploma courses in India in Medical/ Dental Colleges running with the approval of the Medical Council of India/ Dental Council of India. The exam fee for NEET-PG is INR 3, 750 for general candidates and INR 2, 750 for SC/ST/PWD/PH candidates. The examination is a computer based test 300 multiple choice questions exam delivered on computer based platform (CBT). The syllabus for the exam comprises of subjects/knowledge areas as per the Graduate Medical Education Regulations issued by Medical Council of India. The NEET PG is conducted in the month of December and the result is declared in January. Online registration begins in September and is open until October.

MD in Pathology: Career Prospects

Career opportunities in the field of pathology abound since there are multiple specialties in pathology, and a postgraduate can choose to specialize in any of the areas such as histopathology, cytopathology, clinical pathology and immunohistochemical techniques, and work under the supervision of some of the best pathologists. They may even set up their own private clinics known as diagnostic laboratories. Pathologists are lucratively recruited in the private/ corporate sectors/ hospitals and are paid in the range of INR 60 to 80,000 per month.

Typically, pathologists function in 3 broad areas- as diagnosticians in hospitals; investigators or researchers in medical laboratories, and as teachers in colleges and universities.

Successful postgraduates of the discipline work as Specialists in any of the sub-branches of pathology such as surgical pathology, clinical pathology, anatomical pathology, veterinary pathology, molecular pathology, plant pathology and forensic pathology.

They may also choose to work as consultants to doctors or medical examiners. Employment opportunities for experienced professionals in this field are also open in universities, laboratories, and hospitals. They are employed in areas of public health, law enforcement, government agencies, among other fields. Additionally, they may even step into research and pursue a Ph. D in any specialized branch of pathology.

As a fresh postgraduate, pathologists earn about INR 8000 to Rs.12000 monthly.  With experience, the salary increases to INR15,000 to 22,000 monthly. In private hospitals, they may earn even about INR 3,00,000 to 3,50,000 yearly in the beginning.

Some of the popular employment areas for MD in Pathology are:

  • Hospitals and Clinics – (government and private)
  • Academic Institutions
  • Private Clinics
  • Government Agencies

MD in Pathology postgraduates are hired in capacities such as:

  • Consultants
  • Medical Examiner
  • Professors
  • Cytotechnologist
  • Mortuary Assistant
  • Dermatopathologist
  • Health Care Workers
  • Forensic Technician
  • Medical Lab Technician

MD in Pathology: Academic Options

After obtaining the first postgraduate degree, i.e.MD/MS/DNB, one can go for further specialization in medical or surgical fields.

Listed here are some of the popular job positions offered to successful postgraduates of the discipline with the corresponding job descriptions and salaries offered.

Job TitleJob DescriptionAverage Annual Salary in INR
Medical PathologistMedical Pathologists are physicians who specialize in diagnosing and studying diseases using laboratory methods. They are either clinical or anatomical pathologists. The work involves examining body fluids and conducting toxicology tests, analyzing tissue samples and cells to help in diagnosing diseases. They can be found in clinics, military services and government agencies.5,53,802 to 2,455,539
 Medical Examiner/ Forensic PathologistMedical Examiners are basically into forensic medical examining and their main responsibility is to determine the cause of a person’s death, be it natural, accidental or intentional. They perform autopsies, examine injuries and wound, collect samples, and work on them in the laboratories. They also analyze blood and DNA in labs using microscopes and then testify in court.4,80,000 to 1,200,000
Veterinary Clinical PathologistVeterinary Clinical Pathologists perform the evaluation and interpretation of clinical pathology data from animals exposed to test materials. 1,200,000 to 2,400,000
 Pathology ProfessorProfessors teach house- staff, medical and undergraduate students on an advanced level, about kidney- related diseases and their diagnoses via consultations and formal seminars. They are also significant participants in conferences held by clinical services in hospitals. 7,20,000 to 9,00,000

MD in Pathology: Syllabus and Course Structure

Main subjects covered in the discipline are:

  • General Pathology
  • Systemic Pathology
  • Cytopathology
  • Hematology
  • Immunopathology
  • Histopathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Anatomical pathology
  • Forensic pathology
  • Veterinary pathology
  • Plant pathology
  • Molecular pathology
  • Surgical pathology

Students pursuing the course are required to work on the assigned research project under the guidance of a senior teacher, the result of which shall be formulated and submitted in the form of a thesis. This thesis needs to be submitted at least 6 months before the theoretical and clinical/ practical examination. It is examined and evaluated by a minimum of 3 examiners from the department.

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