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Blackbox Theorems [closed]

Course Queries Syllabus Queries

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( 4 months ago )

By a blackbox theorem I mean a theorem that is often applied but whose proof is understood in detail by relatively few of those who use it. A prototypical example is the Classification of Finite Simple Groups (assuming the proof is complete). I think very few people really know the nuts and bolts of the proof but it is widely applied in many areas of mathematics. I would prefer not to include as a blackbox theorem exotic counterexamples because they are not usually applied in the same sense as the Classification of Finite Simple Groups.

I am curious to compile a list of such blackbox theorems with the usual CW rules of one example per answer.

Obviously this is not connected to my research directly so I can understand if this gets closed.

what's your interest