From what you've provided, I think that the worst that can be said is that the professor wasn't as clear as they could have been (and the extent to which this is true is hard for us to judge, knowing only one side of the story). Even at its most extreme interpretation, though, this doesn't rise to the level of something which is actionable. There is a gulf between poor performance (in any sense) on the professor's part, and activity which gives you grounds to challenge or otherwise "fix" your grade. There are plenty of far worse stories - I have one or two myself - where the only response is ultimately "Dangit" and doing better the next time around.
Note that I'm deliberately taking the most extreme interpretation of the OP's post in the above - my point is that, even if we interpret things in the worst way for the professor, they are still well within the bounds of acceptability.
Your last paragraph asks a separate question:
I am concerning to talk to my adviser because that's what I believe adviser is for but based on how she usually advice me with courses and degree, she is quite careless person which makes me not sure what I need to do for this semester.
This is a difficulty which often happens (I had some interactions of this type with my own advisor). But almost certainly your university has a handboook or website detailing what is required for each major, what the general graduation requirements are, etc. - and you should read this. Finally, you can politely ask for more explicitly justified advice from your advisor - e.g. "OK, but I'm still worried that we're missing a requirement - can you help me through [part of handbook] to make sure we're not missing anything?" Note that this signals your awareness that making sure you graduate - and reading the relevant documents - is also your job, which is related to your main question.
More specific advisor-related advice will depend on our understanding better exactly how your interactions with your advisor have gone - e.g. if you expand on "I am concerned in talking about this issue to my adviser with worries because my adviser already gave me to much impression of 'just get this over with.'"